Company Name

  • Network Engineering Skills

    Configured Cisco Routers (2500, 3000, 4000) using RIP, IGRP, OSPF, EIGRP and Switches (5000, 3524, 2900).
    Implementation of DHCP, DNS, FTP, TFTP.
    Implemented traffic filters using Standard and Extended access-lists, Distribute-Lists, and Route Maps.
    Routing Protocol (BGP, OSPF, EIGRP, IGRP, RIP, IS-IS), Routed Protocol (TCP/IP).
    Install and Configuration of DHCP Server, DNS Server, FTP Server, Squid, Web Server On Linux.

  • Computer Programming Skills

    Office Package: Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Access, Microsoft PowerPoint, Microsoft Outlook Express.
    Programming Language:Pascal, C, C++, Java, Java Swing, PHP, Dot Net.
    Operating Systems: Windows9X, Windows Server200X, Windows ME, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Linux, MS DOS.
    HTML Editing Tools: Macromedia Dreamweaver, Microsoft FrontPage, Adobe GoLive.
    Graphics Tools: Macromedia Flash, Macromedia Fireworks, Adobe Photoshop, Adobe PageMaker, Adobe Illustrator,SwishMX.

  • Technical Support Specialist

    Install Network Interface Cards NIC s . Setup bindings, IP addresses, WINS, and DNS configurations. Operate, and maintain Local Area Network LAN connectivity using TCP/IP protocol.
    Identify, troubleshoot, and analyze computer related issues. Determine appropriate course of action, and conduct repairs, modifications, and upgrade internal components and peripherals as needed.
    Plan layout of workstation locations and LAN cabling. Coordinate teardown, move, and install of office partitions, desks, and equipment. Install PC workstations, LAN cabling and setup network connectivity.
    Maintained excellent working relationships with customers, field service, sales and marketing people.

Virtualization With KVM On Ubuntu 10.10

This guide explains how you can install and use KVM for creating and running virtual machines on an Ubuntu 10.10 server. I will show how to create image-based virtual machines and also virtual machines that use a logical volume (LVM). KVM is short for Kernel-based Virtual Machine and makes use of hardware virtualization, i.e., you need a CPU that supports hardware virtualization, e.g. Intel VT or AMD-V.

I do not issue any guarantee that this will work for you!

1 Preliminary Note

I’m using a machine with the hostname and the IP address here as my KVM host.

Because we will run all the steps from this tutorial with root privileges, we can either prepend all commands in this tutorial with the string sudo, or we become root right now by typing

sudo su

2 Installing KVM And vmbuilder

First check if your CPU supports hardware virtualization – if this is the case, the command

egrep ‘(vmx|svm)’ –color=always /proc/cpuinfo

should display something, e.g. like this:

root@server1:~# egrep ‘(vmx|svm)’ –color=always /proc/cpuinfo
flags           : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic sep mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush mmx fxsr sse sse2 ht syscall nx mmxext
 fxsr_opt rdtscp lm 3dnowext 3dnow rep_good nopl pni cx16 lahf_lm cmp_legacy svm extapic cr8_legacy 3dnowprefetch
flags           : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic sep mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush mmx fxsr sse sse2 ht syscall nx mmxext
 fxsr_opt rdtscp lm 3dnowext 3dnow rep_good nopl pni cx16 lahf_lm cmp_legacy svm extapic cr8_legacy 3dnowprefetch

If nothing is displayed, then your processor doesn’t support hardware virtualization, and you must stop here.

To install KVM and vmbuilder (a script to create Ubuntu-based virtual machines), we run

aptitude install ubuntu-virt-server python-vm-builder kvm-pxe

General type of mail configuration: <– Internet Site
System mail name: <–

Afterwards we must add the user as which we’re currently logged in (root) to the group libvirtd:

adduser `id -un` libvirtd
adduser `id -un` kvm

You need to log out and log back in for the new group memberships to take effect.

To check if KVM has successfully been installed, run

virsh -c qemu:///system list

It should display something like this:

root@server1:~# virsh -c qemu:///system list
 Id Name                 State


If it displays an error instead, then something went wrong.

Next we need to set up a network bridge on our server so that our virtual machines can be accessed from other hosts as if they were physical systems in the network.

To do this, we install the package bridge-utils…

aptitude install bridge-utils

… and configure a bridge. Open /etc/network/interfaces:

vi /etc/network/interfaces

Before the modification, my file looks as follows:

# This file describes the network interfaces available on your system
# and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5).

# The loopback network interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

# The primary network interface
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet static
I change it so that it looks like this:

# This file describes the network interfaces available on your system
# and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5).

# The loopback network interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

# The primary network interface
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet manual

auto br0
iface br0 inet static
        bridge_ports eth0
        bridge_fd 9
        bridge_hello 2
        bridge_maxage 12
        bridge_stp off

(Make sure you use the correct settings for your network!)

Restart the network...

/etc/init.d/networking restart

... and run


It should now show the network bridge (br0):

root@server1:~# ifconfig
br0       Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 00:1e:90:f3:f0:02
          inet addr:  Bcast:  Mask:
          inet6 addr: fe80::21e:90ff:fef3:f002/64 Scope:Link
          RX packets:15 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:19 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
          RX bytes:1076 (1.0 KB)  TX bytes:1766 (1.7 KB)

eth0      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 00:1e:90:f3:f0:02
          inet6 addr: fe80::21e:90ff:fef3:f002/64 Scope:Link
          RX packets:37204 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:20197 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
          RX bytes:53840040 (53.8 MB)  TX bytes:1655487 (1.6 MB)
          Interrupt:44 Base address:0xa000

lo        Link encap:Local Loopback
          inet addr:  Mask:
          inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host
          UP LOOPBACK RUNNING  MTU:16436  Metric:1
          RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
          RX bytes:0 (0.0 B)  TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)

virbr0    Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr d2:80:51:63:84:92
          inet addr:  Bcast:  Mask:
          inet6 addr: fe80::d080:51ff:fe63:8492/64 Scope:Link
          RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:6 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
          RX bytes:0 (0.0 B)  TX bytes:468 (468.0 B)


Before we start our first virtual machine, I recommend to reboot the system:


If you don't do this, you might get an error like open /dev/kvm: Permission denied in the virtual machine logs in the /var/log/libvirt/qemu/ directory.

3 Creating An Image-Based VM

We can now create our first VM - an image-based VM (if you expect lots of traffic and many read- and write operations for that VM, use an LVM-based VM instead as shown in chapter 6 - image-based VMs are heavy on hard disk IO). I want to create my virtual machines in the directory /vm (they cannot be created in the /root directory because the libvirt-qemu user doesn't have read permissions in that directory), so I have to create it first: mkdir /vm We will create a new directory for each VM that we want to create, e.g. /vm/vm1, /vm/vm2, /vm/vm3, and so on, because each VM will have a subdirectory called ubuntu-kvm, and obviously there can be just one such directory in /vm/vm1, for example. If you try to create a second VM in /vm/vm1, for example, you will get an error message saying ubuntu-kvm already exists (unless you run vmbuilder with the --dest=DESTDIR argument): root@server1:/vm/vm1# vmbuilder kvm ubuntu -c vm2.cfg 2009-05-07 16:32:44,185 INFO     Cleaning up ubuntu-kvm already exists root@server1:/vm/vm1# We will use the vmbuilder tool to create VMs. (You can learn more about vmbuilder here.) vmbuilder uses a template to create virtual machines - this template is located in the /etc/vmbuilder/libvirt/ directory. First we create a copy: mkdir -p /vm/vm1/mytemplates/libvirt cp /etc/vmbuilder/libvirt/* /vm/vm1/mytemplates/libvirt/ Now we come to the partitioning of our VM. We create a file called vmbuilder.partition... vi /vm/vm1/vmbuilder.partition ... and define the desired partitions as follows:
root 8000
swap 4000
/var 20000
This defines a root partition (/) with a size of 8000MB, a swap partition of 4000MB, and a /var partition of 20000MB. The --- line makes that the following partition (/var in this example) is on a separate disk image (i.e., this would create two disk images, one for root and swap and one for /var). Of course, you are free to define whatever partitions you like (as long as you also define root and swap), and of course, they can be in just one disk image - this is just an example.

I want to install openssh-server in the VM. To make sure that each VM gets a unique OpenSSH key, we cannot install openssh-server when we create the VM. Therefore we create a script called that will be executed when the VM is booted for the first time. It will install openssh-server (with a unique key) and also force the user (I will use the default username administrator for my VMs together with the default password howtoforge) to change the password when he logs in for the first time:

vi /vm/vm1/

# This script will run the first time the virtual machine boots
# It is ran as root.

# Expire the user account
passwd -e administrator

# Install openssh-server
apt-get update
apt-get install -qqy --force-yes openssh-server

Make sure you replace the username administrator with your default login name.

(You can find more about this here:

(You can also define a "first login" script as described here:

Now take a look at

vmbuilder kvm ubuntu --help

to learn about the available options.

To create our first VM, vm1, we go to the VM directory...

cd /vm/vm1/

... and run vmbuilder, e.g. as follows:

vmbuilder kvm ubuntu --suite=lucid --flavour=virtual --arch=amd64 --mirror= -o --libvirt=qemu:///system --ip= --gw= --part=vmbuilder.partition --templates=mytemplates --user=administrator --name=Administrator --pass=howtoforge --addpkg=vim-nox --addpkg=unattended-upgrades --addpkg=acpid --firstboot=/vm/vm1/ --mem=256 --hostname=vm1 --bridge=br0

Most of the options are self-explanatory. --part specifies the file with the partitioning details, relative to our working directory (that's why we had to go to our VM directory before running vmbuilder), --templates specifies the directory that holds the template file (again relative to our working directory), and --firstboot specifies the firstboot script. --libvirt=qemu:///system tells KVM to add this VM to the list of available virtual machines. --addpkg allows you to specify Ubuntu packages that you want to have installed during the VM creation (see above why you shouldn't add openssh-server to that list and use the firstboot script instead). --bridge sets up a bridged network; as we have created the bridge br0 in chapter 2, we specify that bridge here.

In the --mirror line, you can specify an official Ubuntu repository in --mirror, e.g. If you leave out --mirror, then the default Ubuntu repository ( will be used.

If you specify an IP address in the --ip switch, make sure that you also specify the correct gateway IP using the --gw switch (otherwise vmbuilder will assume that it is the first valid address in the network which might not be correct). Usually the gateway IP is the same that you use in /etc/network/interfaces (see chapter 2).

In the --suite switch, I have used lucid (Ubuntu 10.04 LTS) - at the time of this writing, maverick (Ubuntu 10.10) was not yet supported.

The build process can take a few minutes.

Afterwards, you can find an XML configuration file for the VM in /etc/libvirt/qemu/ (=> /etc/libvirt/qemu/vm1.xml):

ls -l /etc/libvirt/qemu/

root@server1:~/vm1# ls -l /etc/libvirt/qemu/
total 8
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 2010-11-12 16:12 networks
-rw------- 1 root root 1759 2010-11-12 16:39 vm1.xml

The disk images are located in the ubuntu-kvm/ subdirectory of our VM directory:

ls -l /vm/vm1/ubuntu-kvm/

root@server1:/vm/vm1# ls -l /vm/vm1/ubuntu-kvm/
total 454876
-rwx---r-x 1 root root        95 2010-11-12 16:39
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 343605248 2010-11-12 16:38 tmpEauAHb.qcow2
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 122421248 2010-11-12 16:39 tmpGCsM0p.qcow2

4 Creating A Second VM

If you want to create a second VM (vm2), here's a short summary of the commands: mkdir -p /vm/vm2/mytemplates/libvirt cp /etc/vmbuilder/libvirt/* /vm/vm2/mytemplates/libvirt/ vi /vm/vm2/vmbuilder.partition vi /vm/vm2/ cd /vm/vm2/ vmbuilder kvm ubuntu --suite=lucid --flavour=virtual --arch=amd64 --mirror= -o --libvirt=qemu:///system --ip= --gw= --part=vmbuilder.partition --templates=mytemplates --user=administrator --name=Administrator --pass=howtoforge --addpkg=vim-nox --addpkg=unattended-upgrades --addpkg=acpid --firstboot=/vm/vm2/ --mem=256 --hostname=vm2 --bridge=br0 (Please note that you don't have to create a new directory for the VM (~/vm2) if you pass the -d DESTDIR argument to the vmbuilder command - it allows you to create a VM in a directory where you've already created another VM. In that case you don't have to create new vmbuilder.partition and files and don't have to modify the template, but can simply use the existing files: cd /vm/vm1/ vmbuilder kvm ubuntu --suite=lucid --flavour=virtual --arch=amd64 --mirror= -o --libvirt=qemu:///system --ip= --gw= --part=vmbuilder.partition --templates=mytemplates --user=administrator --name=Administrator --pass=howtoforge --addpkg=vim-nox --addpkg=unattended-upgrades --addpkg=acpid --firstboot=/vm/vm1/ --mem=256 --hostname=vm2 --bridge=br0 -d vm2-kvm )

5 Managing A VM

VMs can be managed through virsh, the "virtual shell". To connect to the virtual shell, run virsh --connect qemu:///system This is how the virtual shell looks: root@server1:~/vm2# virsh --connect qemu:///system Connecting to uri: qemu:///system Welcome to virsh, the virtualization interactive terminal. Type:  'help' for help with commands        'quit' to quit virsh # You can now type in commands on the virtual shell to manage your VMs. Run help to get a list of available commands: virsh # help Commands:     help            print help     attach-device   attach device from an XML file     attach-disk     attach disk device     attach-interface attach network interface     autostart       autostart a domain     capabilities    capabilities     cd              change the current directory     connect         (re)connect to hypervisor     console         connect to the guest console     cpu-baseline    compute baseline CPU     cpu-compare     compare host CPU with a CPU described by an XML file     create          create a domain from an XML file     start           start a (previously defined) inactive domain     destroy         destroy a domain     detach-device   detach device from an XML file     detach-disk     detach disk device     detach-interface detach network interface     define          define (but don't start) a domain from an XML file     domid           convert a domain name or UUID to domain id     domuuid         convert a domain name or id to domain UUID     dominfo         domain information     domjobinfo      domain job information     domjobabort     abort active domain job     domname         convert a domain id or UUID to domain name     domstate        domain state     domblkstat      get device block stats for a domain     domifstat       get network interface stats for a domain     dommemstat      get memory statistics for a domain     domblkinfo      domain block device size information     domxml-from-native Convert native config to domain XML     domxml-to-native Convert domain XML to native config     dumpxml         domain information in XML     edit            edit XML configuration for a domain     find-storage-pool-sources discover potential storage pool sources     find-storage-pool-sources-as find potential storage pool sources     freecell        NUMA free memory     hostname        print the hypervisor hostname     list            list domains     migrate         migrate domain to another host     migrate-setmaxdowntime set maximum tolerable downtime     net-autostart   autostart a network     net-create      create a network from an XML file     net-define      define (but don't start) a network from an XML file     net-destroy     destroy a network     net-dumpxml     network information in XML     net-edit        edit XML configuration for a network     net-list        list networks     net-name        convert a network UUID to network name     net-start       start a (previously defined) inactive network     net-undefine    undefine an inactive network     net-uuid        convert a network name to network UUID     iface-list      list physical host interfaces     iface-name      convert an interface MAC address to interface name     iface-mac       convert an interface name to interface MAC address     iface-dumpxml   interface information in XML     iface-define    define (but don't start) a physical host interface from an XML file     iface-undefine  undefine a physical host interface (remove it from configuration)     iface-edit      edit XML configuration for a physical host interface     iface-start     start a physical host interface (enable it / "if-up")     iface-destroy   destroy a physical host interface (disable it / "if-down")     managedsave     managed save of a domain state     managedsave-remove Remove managed save of a domain     nodeinfo        node information     nodedev-list    enumerate devices on this host     nodedev-dumpxml node device details in XML     nodedev-dettach dettach node device from its device driver     nodedev-reattach reattach node device to its device driver     nodedev-reset   reset node device     nodedev-create  create a device defined by an XML file on the node     nodedev-destroy destroy a device on the node     nwfilter-define define or update a network filter from an XML file     nwfilter-undefine undefine a network filter     nwfilter-dumpxml network filter information in XML     nwfilter-list   list network filters     nwfilter-edit   edit XML configuration for a network filter     pool-autostart  autostart a pool     pool-build      build a pool     pool-create     create a pool from an XML file     pool-create-as  create a pool from a set of args     pool-define     define (but don't start) a pool from an XML file     pool-define-as  define a pool from a set of args     pool-destroy    destroy a pool     pool-delete     delete a pool     pool-dumpxml    pool information in XML     pool-edit       edit XML configuration for a storage pool     pool-info       storage pool information     pool-list       list pools     pool-name       convert a pool UUID to pool name     pool-refresh    refresh a pool     pool-start      start a (previously defined) inactive pool     pool-undefine   undefine an inactive pool     pool-uuid       convert a pool name to pool UUID     secret-define   define or modify a secret from an XML file     secret-dumpxml  secret attributes in XML     secret-set-value set a secret value     secret-get-value Output a secret value     secret-undefine undefine a secret     secret-list     list secrets     pwd             print the current directory     quit            quit this interactive terminal     exit            quit this interactive terminal     reboot          reboot a domain     restore         restore a domain from a saved state in a file     resume          resume a domain     save            save a domain state to a file     schedinfo       show/set scheduler parameters     dump            dump the core of a domain to a file for analysis     shutdown        gracefully shutdown a domain     setmem          change memory allocation     setmaxmem       change maximum memory limit     setvcpus        change number of virtual CPUs     suspend         suspend a domain     ttyconsole      tty console     undefine        undefine an inactive domain     update-device   update device from an XML file     uri             print the hypervisor canonical URI     vol-create      create a vol from an XML file     vol-create-from create a vol, using another volume as input     vol-create-as   create a volume from a set of args     vol-clone       clone a volume.     vol-delete      delete a vol     vol-wipe        wipe a vol     vol-dumpxml     vol information in XML     vol-info        storage vol information     vol-list        list vols     vol-pool        returns the storage pool for a given volume key or path     vol-path        returns the volume path for a given volume name or key     vol-name        returns the volume name for a given volume key or path     vol-key         returns the volume key for a given volume name or path     vcpuinfo        domain vcpu information     vcpupin         control domain vcpu affinity     version         show version     vncdisplay      vnc display     snapshot-create Create a snapshot     snapshot-current Get the current snapshot     snapshot-delete Delete a domain snapshot     snapshot-dumpxml Dump XML for a domain snapshot     snapshot-list   List snapshots for a domain     snapshot-revert Revert a domain to a snapshot virsh # list shows all running VMs; list --all shows all VMs, running and inactive: virsh # list --all  Id Name                 State ----------------------------------   - vm1                  shut off   - vm2                  shut off virsh # Before you start a new VM for the first time, you must define it from its xml file (located in the /etc/libvirt/qemu/ directory): define /etc/libvirt/qemu/vm1.xml Please note that whenever you modify the VM's xml file in /etc/libvirt/qemu/, you must run the define command again! Now you can start the VM: start vm1 After a few moments, you should be able to connect to the VM with an SSH client such as PuTTY; log in with the default username and password. After the first login you will be prompted to change the password. list should now show the VM as running: virsh # list  Id Name                 State ----------------------------------   1 vm1                  running virsh # To stop a VM, run shutdown vm1 To immediately stop it (i.e., pull the power plug), run destroy vm1 Suspend a VM: suspend vm1 Resume a VM: resume vm1 These are the most important commands. Type quit to leave the virtual shell.

6 Creating An LVM-Based VM

LVM-based VMs have some advantages over image-based VMs. They are not as heavy on hard disk IO, and they are easier to back up (using LVM snapshots). To use LVM-based VMs, you need a volume group that has some free space that is not allocated to any logical volume. In this example, I use the volume group /dev/vg0 with a size of approx. 465GB... vgdisplay root@server1:~# vgdisplay   --- Volume group ---   VG Name               vg0   System ID   Format                lvm2   Metadata Areas        1   Metadata Sequence No  3   VG Access             read/write   VG Status             resizable   MAX LV                0   Cur LV                2   Open LV               2   Max PV                0   Cur PV                1   Act PV                1   VG Size               465.29 GB   PE Size               4.00 MB   Total PE              119114   Alloc PE / Size       24079 / 94.06 GB   Free  PE / Size       95035 / 371.23 GB   VG UUID               hUDyB2-hGR5-T7gI-wxt6-p4Om-PT6l-Bgbi85 root@server1:~# ... that contains the logical volumes /dev/vg0/root with a size of approx. 100GB and /dev/vg0/swap_1 with a size of 1GB - the rest is not allocated and can be used for VMs: lvdisplay root@server1:~# lvdisplay   --- Logical volume ---   LV Name                /dev/vg0/root   VG Name                vg0   LV UUID                5PHWtQ-5XuQ-jgvu-uFrJ-f889-w46a-cIRFcb   LV Write Access        read/write   LV Status              available   # open                 1   LV Size                93.13 GB   Current LE             23841   Segments               1   Allocation             inherit   Read ahead sectors     auto   - currently set to     256   Block device           252:0   --- Logical volume ---   LV Name                /dev/vg0/swap_1   VG Name                vg0   LV UUID                N25s1p-AQWJ-X2WH-FAyA-xlS6-ettD-55ZHE8   LV Write Access        read/write   LV Status              available   # open                 2   LV Size                952.00 MB   Current LE             238   Segments               1   Allocation             inherit   Read ahead sectors     auto   - currently set to     256   Block device           252:1 root@server1:~# I will now create the virtual machine vm3 as an LVM-based VM. We can use the vmbuilder command again. vmbuilder knows the --raw option which allows to write the VM to a block device (e.g. /dev/vg0/vm3). mkdir -p /vm/vm3/mytemplates/libvirt cp /etc/vmbuilder/libvirt/* /vm/vm3/mytemplates/libvirt/ Make sure that you create all partitions in just one image file, so don't use --- in the vmbuilder.partition file: vi /vm/vm3/vmbuilder.partition
root 8000
swap 2000
/var 10000

vi /vm/vm3/

# This script will run the first time the virtual machine boots
# It is ran as root.

# Expire the user account
passwd -e administrator

# Install openssh-server
apt-get update
apt-get install -qqy --force-yes openssh-server

As you see from the vmbuilder.partition file, the VM will use a max. of 20GB, so we create a logical volume called /dev/vg0/vm3 with a size of 20GB now:

lvcreate -L20G -n vm3 vg0

We can now create the new VM as follows (please note the --raw=/dev/vg0/vm3 switch!):

cd /vm/vm3/
vmbuilder kvm ubuntu --suite=lucid --flavour=virtual --arch=amd64 --mirror= -o --libvirt=qemu:///system --ip= --gw= --part=vmbuilder.partition --raw=/dev/vg0/vm3 --templates=mytemplates --user=administrator --name=Administrator --pass=howtoforge --addpkg=vim-nox --addpkg=unattended-upgrades --addpkg=acpid --firstboot=/vm/vm3/ --mem=256 --hostname=vm3 --bridge=br0

You can now use virsh to manage the VM:

virsh --connect qemu:///system

Run the define command first...

define /etc/libvirt/qemu/vm3.xml

... before you start the VM:

start vm3

This entry was posted in Linux.

Leave a Reply